Hurricane Leslie (2018)

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Hurricane Leslie
Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Leslie 2018-10-11 1515Z.jpg
Hurricane Leslie near peak intensity southwest of the Azores on 11 October
Formed23 September 2018
Dissipated16 October 2018
(Extratropical after 13 October)
Highest winds1-minute sustained: 90 mph (150 km/h)
Lowest pressure968 mbar (hPa); 28.59 inHg
Fatalities2 direct, 15 indirect
Damage> $500 million (2018 USD)
Areas affectedAzores, Bermuda, East Coast of the United States, Madeira, Iberian Peninsula, France
Part of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane
and
2018–19 European windstorm seasons

Hurricane Leslie (known as Storm Leslie[1] or Cyclone Leslie[2] while extratropical) was the strongest cyclone of tropical origin to strike the Iberian Peninsula since 1842. A large, long-lived, and very erratic tropical cyclone, Leslie was the twelfth named storm and sixth hurricane of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season.[3] The storm had a non-tropical origin, developing from an extratropical cyclone that was situated over the northern Atlantic on 22 September. The low quickly acquired subtropical characteristics and was classified as Subtropical Storm Leslie on the following day. The cyclone meandered over the northern Atlantic and gradually weakened, before merging with a frontal system on 25 September, which later intensified into a powerful hurricane-force extratropical low over the northern Atlantic.

While Leslie began to weaken late on 27 September, the low began to re-acquire subtropical characteristics, and by 28 September, Leslie had completed the transition to a subtropical storm once again. Leslie became fully tropical and gradually intensified, becoming a Category 1 hurricane early on 3 October, and initially peaked with 1-minute sustained winds of 140 km/h (85 mph) later that day. Leslie gradually weakened, falling to tropical storm intensity late on 4 October. The cyclone continued to slowly weaken before beginning to re-intensify on 8 October. Two days later, Leslie reached hurricane status for the second time. Leslie continued to slowly strengthen, reaching peak intensity with sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 968 mbar (28.59 inHg), early on 12 October. Leslie then began to gradually weaken later that day, while accelerating towards the northeast and passed far south of the Azores. On 13 October, Leslie passed north of Madeira, before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone just off the Portuguese coast later that day. Leslie's remnants made landfall in central Portugal a few hours later. The low continued moving northeastward while rapidly weakening, passing over the Bay of Biscay, before dissipating by 16 October over Spain.

The storm was responsible for 17 deaths in mainland Europe, including 2 direct deaths in Portugal and 15 indirect deaths in France. In November 2018, Aon estimated that Leslie's damage total exceeded €424 million (US$500 million).[nb 1] Hurricane Leslie prompted the issuance of tropical storm watches and warnings for Madeira Island. Leslie brought wind gusts up to 190 km/h (120 mph) to Portugal, felling thousands of trees, causing the collapse of hundreds of structures, and damaging hundreds of buildings, signs, and pieces of equipment. Over 300,000 citizens were left without power. Damage across the country was estimated to be €120 million (US$145 million). City, municipal, and the national government provided funds to repair damage to buildings as well as the local forests, and also launch cleanup efforts. Leslie brought strong winds and torrential rainfall to Spain, most notably the Catalonia region, causing a river to spill its banks, nearly four dozen landslides to occur, and damaging several structures and vehicles. The storm disrupted transportation and caused 14,000 power outages throughout the country. Leslie and a cold front, the latter of which was almost stationary, combined to cause record-breaking flooding in the Aude, France. The flooding in the department was considered to be the worst since 1891. Floodwaters damaged buildings, roads, and vehicles throughout several towns and cities, causing €220 million (US$254 million) in damage. Nearly 1,000 people were evacuated when a dam overflowed in Pezens Municipality, and over 8,000 people lost power nationwide.

Meteorological history[edit]

Origins, formation, and tropical transition[edit]

Please see the adjacent text for details on Leslie's track and intensity.
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
▲ Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

The United States-based National Hurricane Center (NHC) began forecasting on 19 September 2018 that an extratropical low would form in a few days between the Azores and Bermuda.[4] This system developed along the boundary of a front early on 22 September, approximately 1,295 km (805 mi) west-southwest of Flores Island.[5] This system was associated with the southern portion of the remnants of Hurricane Florence, which had previously split into two storms on 18 September.[6][7] Amid favorable environmental conditions,[8] the system separated from the front, and its banding features became better established, signaling the formation of Subtropical Storm Leslie by 12:00 UTC on 23 September.[5] Around that time, Leslie was within an upper-level low and the former's gale-force winds were displaced from the center.[9] The subtropical cyclone was located within an area of minimal steering currents, causing the storm's movement to be erratic.[5][10] Moderate vertical wind shear and dry air hindered the development of thunderstorm activity or convection outside the southeastern portion of the system, as it tracked generally southwestward.[11] The cyclone turned towards the south and later the east on 24 September.[12][13] During that time, Leslie's cloud pattern became irregular, with several cloud swirls existing within a broadening circulation.[14] Leslie weakened into a subtropical depression around 00:00 UTC on 25 September, due to the continuing wind shear and dry air.[5] The storm began a southeastward motion later in the day,[15] followed by a turn back to the east. Leslie became an extratropical cyclone around 12:00 UTC, after its circulation expanded along a baroclinic zone. At that time, an expansive stratocumulus cloud shield was becoming established and cold, stable air was entering the region.[16]

During the next couple of days, Leslie's track consisted of an incomplete counterclockwise loop. At the same time, the baroclinic processes strengthened the extratropical cyclone, leading to hurricane-force winds of 120 km/h (75 mph) by 00:00 UTC on 27 September. A weakening trend commenced during the middle of the day and persisted until 28 September. However, as Leslie tracked westward, it began to reacquire tropical characteristics and was declared a subtropical storm once more around 12:00 UTC.[5] The storm had reestablished bands of convection near its center and its wind field had shrunk considerably. While Leslie had transitioned from a cold core to a warm core system, it was still located within a sizable low-pressure system.[17] Over the next couple of days, the cyclone experienced minimal change in strength as it tracked in a southwesterly direction around the western edge of an extensive cyclonic circulation.[5] Thunderstorm activity developed near Leslie's center and anticyclonic outflow materialized to the northeast and southeast of the system. As a result, Leslie became a tropical storm by 18:00 UTC on 29 September, while it was located approximately 1,850 km (1,150 mi) west-southwest of Flores Island in the Azores.[5][18]

Initial peak intensity and weakening[edit]

Satellite image of Leslie over the open Northern Atlantic on 27 September, as a weakening hurricane-force extratropical cyclone.
Leslie as a hurricane-force extratropical cyclone over the Northern Atlantic on 27 September

Located within a region of cool sea surface temperatures and strong northwesterly wind shear,[18][19] the tropical storm intensified little during the next couple of days.[5] Banding features began to increase on 1 October, as the wind shear subsided.[20] Leslie continued a west-southwestward to southwestward motion over the next day or so, while located in weak steering currents and positioned between high-pressure systems that were located to the west and northeast.[5] As Leslie began to strengthen more quickly on 2 October, convection increased both in intensity and organization. Microwave imagery displayed that Leslie had developed an eye at its low levels.[21] The storm intensified into a hurricane around 06:00 UTC on 3 October.[5] Meanwhile, Leslie became stationary, with its southerly movement ending.[22] Leslie reached its initial peak at 18:00 UTC as a Category 1 hurricane, with 1-minute maximum sustained winds of 140 km/h (85 mph).[5] At the time, the storm had a large, irregular eye, with sporadic dry air entrainment. The storm began to track northward between a shortwave trough, which was located to the northeast, and a mid-level ridge, which was located to Leslie's southeast.[23]

Moving over cooler, 26 °C (79 °F) sea surface temperatures, Leslie began to weaken slowly on 4 October.[5][24] The cyclone weakened to a tropical storm around 18:00 UTC.[5] By 5 October, Leslie's inner core had dissipated, and the storm possessed only small bands of convection on the outer limits of its circulation.[25] Convection refired over the storm's center later that day, although the maximum winds were located 165–185 km (105–115 mi) away.[26] Leslie turned towards the east from late 5 October to 6 October, under the influence of mid-latitude westerly flow.[27][28] Although the tropical storm traversed a region of even colder, 24–25 °C (75–77 °F) sea surface temperatures during the next couple of days and was located in a region of moderate wind shear,[5][29] the storm changed little in strength.[5] Leslie's convection became more organized on 6 October, as banding features became more defined and a mid-level eye formed to the southeast of the storm's low-level circulation center.[30] Leslie turned towards the east-southeast on 7 October, still under the influence of the westerly flow.[31] Leslie bottomed out as an 85 km/h (50 mph) tropical storm at 00:00 UTC, as it passed over an area of cool sea surface temperatures.[5][32]

Peak intensity, extratropical transition, and demise[edit]

Satellite image of Hurricane Leslie as it neared its initial, Category 1 intensity peak on 3 October.
Hurricane Leslie near its initial peak intensity on 3 October

Leslie began to restrengthen later on 8 October, as an inner core began to develop and convection became more intense.[5][33] While the storm continued to track in a southeastward direction, traversing an environment of warmer sea surface temperatures and lower wind shear, a mid-level eye feature began to develop.[34] Turning towards the south, Leslie restrengthened into a hurricane around 06:00 UTC on 10 October.[5] Around that time, the storm's strongest convection was concentrated towards the north, and an irregular eye had emerged on satellite imagery.[35] The cyclone began to proceed east-northeastward early on 11 October, as strengthening continued.[5][36] Leslie peaked at 00:00 UTC on 12 October as a Category 1 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 968 mbar (28.6 inHg), while located approximately 1,065 km (660 mi) south-southwest of Flores Island.[5] The storm had a small, cloud-filled eye around that time.[37]

Leslie began to slowly weaken once more later that day, as sea surface temperatures decreased to 23–24 °C (73–75 °F) and wind shear increased.[5][38] The mid-latitude westerly flow began to rapidly accelerate Leslie towards the east-northeast, with the cyclone passing 325 km (200 mi) north-northwest of Madeira Island around 06:00 UTC on 13 October.[5] Shortly after, Leslie began to transition into an extratropical cyclone, as colder air entered from the south and west and the system's mid-level eye decayed.[39] The cyclone's convection continued to disintegrate as a result of even colder 20 °C (68 °F) sea surface temperatures and strong wind shear.[40][41] The NHC issued its final advisory on Leslie around 21:00 UTC on 13 October, after the storm became fully extratropical.[5][41] The cyclone moved ashore near Figueira da Foz at 21:00 UTC, with winds of 120 km/h (75 mph). Leslie weakened as it traversed the Bay of Biscay on 14 October,[5] reaching western France by 15 October.[42][43] An almost stationary, convective cold front over southern France was assisted by Leslie. The latter helped to spawn a surface low over the Mediterranean Sea which increased convection near the cold front, and it provided unstable air parcels, reduced evaporation, and added moisture to the mid-levels of the airmass over France.[44][45] Leslie's remnant was absorbed into Hurricane Michael's extratropical remnant by 16 October, following a brief Fujiwhara interaction.[43][46][47][48]

Preparations[edit]

Satellite image of Leslie approaching the Iberian Peninsula from an easterly direction on 13 October, while becoming a tropical-storm-force extratropical cyclone
Hurricane Leslie approaching the Iberian Peninsula on 13 October

A tropical storm watch was issued for Madeira on 11 October, at 21:00 UTC. The watch was upgraded to a warning at 03:00 UTC on 12 October.[5] Over 180 sports games were canceled as Leslie approached.[49] Multiple flights were canceled on 12 October, and all flights were canceled on 13 October.[50][51] In Funchal, all bathhouses and a park were closed. Sea voyages to Porto Santo were postponed and fishermen were ordered to move ashore by authorities.[52] At least 13 districts in Portugal were placed under a red alert from 13–14 October, in anticipation of adverse weather conditions from Leslie.[53][54][55] Alerts were also issued by Portugal for Madeira and the Azores.[56] A 1990s-themed party at the Lisbon International Fair was moved back a week as Leslie approached.[57] Fishing vessels were asked to return to port and surfers were ordered to move ashore.[58][59] Seaside streets were closed between Parede and Carcavelos,[60] as well as river routes in the Tagus between Trafaria, Porto Brandão and Belém were closed on 13 October, as Leslie approached Portugal.[61] Nine ports in Portugal were closed to naval traffic due to the storm.[62] At least 29 flights were canceled in Lisbon and Funchal, and 12 others were canceled in Porto.[62][63] Several shows and events in Lisbon, including the Lisbon Marathon, were either canceled or postponed.[62][64]

A yellow alert was declared for 25 provinces in Spain during the storm. An orange alert was issued for the provinces of Barcelona, Castellón, Huesca, Lleida, Navarra, Tarragona, Teruel, Zaragoza, Girona, and the Balearic Islands.[65][66] In Seville, parks were closed on 13 October as a precaution, due to Leslie's approach. All parks but the Parque de Los Príncipes were reopened the next day, which was closed for repairs.[67]

The Aude, Hérault, Pyrénées-Orientales, Tarn, Haute-Garonne, and Aveyron departments in France were all placed under an orange alert, due to the expectation of strong winds and flooding rainfall from the approaching Leslie.[68]

Impact[edit]

In November 2018, Aon estimated that Leslie's damage total exceeded €424 million (US$500 million).[69]

Portugal[edit]

Color photograph of two trees snapped towards their bases by Leslie in Portugal
Multiple trees felled by Leslie in Portugal

As the cyclone reached the Portuguese Coast, it brought wind gusts of 190 km/h (120 mph); Leslie was considered the worst cyclone to affect Portugal since 1842.[70] The strong gusts were attributed to the development of a sting jet.[71] Leslie was only the second tropical cyclone to make landfall on the Iberian Peninsula since 1842, with the other storm being Hurricane Vince, which made landfall in southern Spain during 2005.[72][73] Buoys at three locations along the coast recorded the height of wind-generated waves. Around 00:00 UTC on 14 October, waves up to 4.22 m (13.8 ft) high were observed offshore Faro. Waves affected Leixões and Sines around 08:00 UTC, with peak wave heights of 8.96 m (29.4 ft) and 8.60 m (28.2 ft) occurring there, respectively.[74]

Across Portugal, at least 441 structures collapsed due to strong winds.[75][76][77] Thousands of trees were felled by the storm.[78] A 150-year-old araucaria columnaris, a member of a tree species rare to Portugal, was among the trees felled.[79] Around 39,000 telephone, internet, and television customers lost these services. Nearly 500 employees fixed 150 antennas, which re-established transmission services.[79] The storm left 324,000 customers without power and injured a few dozen people.[80][81] At least 61 people had to be evacuated from their houses due to damage from the storm; 57 people were from Coimbra, 3 from Viseu, and 1 from Leiria.[66][82]

The storm caused significant damage to the forest industry in Portugal.[83] At least €12.7 million (US$15.4 million) in economic losses occurred throughout 3,500 hectares (8,600 acres) of forest. Around 200–250 thousand pine saplings in forests located between Figueira da Foz and Leiria were destroyed, cutting production of resin. Leslie inflicted around €29.8 million (US$36.2 million) in damage to agriculture across the districts of Leiria, Coimbra, Aveiro, and Viseu.[84][85] Approximately €10.5 million (US$12.4 million) in damage to annual crops occurred.[85] Over 1,000 vehicles were damaged across the country.[86] Damage from Leslie in Portugal was estimated to be around €120 million (US$145 million),[87] with half of the total stemming from 28,000 insurance claims for storm damage.[88]

Coimbra District[edit]

Color photograph of a wall section damaged by a downed tree
A wall damaged by a falling tree during the storm

The storm made landfall near Figueira da Foz, which is located 200 km (120 mi) north of Lisbon. Authorities in Lisbon requested that all residents remain indoors. Around 800 people took refuge in a concert hall in Figueira da Foz.[70] Wind gusts of 176 km/h (109 mph) downed trees and traffic signs, with the former causing several traffic accidents.[62] In the city, six vehicles were damaged by a collapsing building, and another five were damaged by falling trees. Multiple homes in the area were deroofed.[89] Three schools and the Figueira da Foz District Hospital were damaged by the storm.[90] Near the shoreline, a car was pulverized and a restaurant was reduced to rubble.[89] A roof was ripped off a building and blown across an esplanade by strong winds.[91] A high-voltage power pole collapsed in Leirosa, falling on a house; the roof of the house subsequently collapsed. A surf instruction center near Praia da Leirosa was lifted onto another property. Strong winds picked up a trailer and tossed it on top of another.[92] At least 80 trailers were either damaged or destroyed in the park.[93] Hundreds of residences, businesses, and fishing piers sustained damage.[83][94] Figueira da Foz was considered the worst-hit municipality, with the storm inflicting €38 million (US$46.2 million) in damage.[95]

At least 3,500 trees were downed near Serra da Boa Viagem alone.[83] The core trees of the forest, which had survived two wildfires in 1993 and 2005 and a major storm in 2013, was largely destroyed. Falling trees smashed concrete picnic tables at a park.[96] The roofs of four bungalows sustained damage, and the balcony cover and glass of another was shattered. The Casa do Parque suffered roof damage; six changing rooms experienced both internal and roof damage, and a dishwashing station was destroyed.[97] Nearly 40 percent of the trees in the Choupal National Forest were either damaged or felled by Leslie.[98]

In Soure, damage was estimated to be at least €1,000,000 (US$1,208,000),[99] with around €600,000 (US$725,000) in damage being to sports infrastructure alone. Schools in the town were closed due to damage and power outages.[100] Around 90 percent of the homes in 8 parishes were damaged by Leslie.[101] The storm broke tiles on several streets and knocked down trees. A pavilion was deroofed in the village of Simões. Municipal authorities dispensed generators to multiple towns in the Soure municipality.[79] In the Mira Municipality, regions were left without potable water, power, and outside contact for over a week. At least 5,000 homes sustained damage during the storm.[102] Equipment and greenhouses also sustained damage.[103] A hospital and firestation in Mira lost power during the storm; power was not restored until 14 October. Eight schools were closed in the municipality, due to a lack of water and power.[104] The Equestrian Center of Montemor-o-Velho was almost entirely destroyed by the storm.[105] A nursing home and a pavillion in Montemor-o-Velho were both deroofed. Another pavillion suffered damage to its supports, rendering it unusable. Pools were damaged in Condeixa-a-Nova, and three families were left homeless.[93]

The power company EDP declared a state of emergency in Coimbra, as a result of damage to electrical infrastructure. A number of high voltage power poles were either felled or bent by the storm.[99] At least 4,000 transformers were damaged by the storm.[102] Several buildings owned by the University of Coimbra suffered damage to their ceilings.[79] The university stadium and a botanical garden also sustained damage, while a radio tower was toppled during the storm.[102] Over a dozen streets were blocked by fallen trees. The electric traction of trolleys was severely impaired across several streets in Coimbra, greatly restricting the availability of service.[106] Scaffolding and signage were damaged across the municipality. National Road 1 was closed in two places between Mealhada and Coimbra due to fallen trees.[107] In Senhor da Serra, solar panels used to power a school were damaged, which caused the school to close for a day. A sanctuary, a chapel, and seven greenhouses received roof damage. A sports field and over a dozen homes were also damaged.[108]

Leiria District[edit]

Color photograph of tree debris resting upon the roof of a residence
Segments of a felled tree on the roof of a house

In the Buçaco National Forest, Leslie left 60 people in the Palace Hotel and another 14 in houses cut off from the outside world for days.[109] A man was injured in the Marinha Grande Municipality, Leira district, when a door was blown off a structure and struck him.[89] In the municipality, a lighthouse was deroofed by the storm. A hotel had a window broken, a balcony destroyed, and suffered damage to its swimming pool and waterpark. Nearly 100 residences in the municipality sustained damage.[110] The roof of Maritime Police facility was lifted away, and the structure had multiple walls destroyed. A restaurant was destroyed at Praia do Pedrógão.[111] Winds blew away tents at the Praia da Vieira, prompting the evacuation of 60 people.[89] Damage in the municipality was estimated to be €5 million (US$6.1 million).[95][112] Around 50 campers were evacuated in Alcobaça. The A17 highway connecting Leiria to Aveiro was closed due to fallen trees. A gas leak also occurred at a restaurant.[93]

Four parishes in Pombal municipality lacked power and water, and communication services were cut. A school was closed due to a lack of power. In the parish of Louriçal, powerlines and trees had fallen in several locations.[113]

Aveiro and Porto Districts[edit]

The European women's roller hockey championship, which was taking place in Mealhada, was stopped in its final minutes after the roof of the sports facility was damaged, windows shattered, and debris littered the track.[81][114][115] Players took refuge in locker rooms.[116] Shipyards and a pavilion were damaged in Mealhada municipality, and a cafeteria sustained damage in Alameda municipality.[117]

A blackout occurred in Porto on a street in Trofa after a street light toppled over.[89] Two metro stations and several pavilions were utilized as shelters for the homeless in Lisbon during the storm.[62][64] Around 30 residences were left without power in Valongo after a high-voltage power pole toppled.[93] The Mestra Silva sank off the coast of Esmoriz during the storm, killing one and leaving another three missing; the captain of the ship was rescued and hospitalized.[118]

Other districts[edit]

Leslie brought wind gusts of 100–120 km/h (62–75 mph) to the Madeira archipelago.[119] A vault at the Convento da Saudação in Évora partially collapsed due to strong winds from Leslie.[120] A 300-year-old ash tree near the Largo da Misericórdia sustained damage during the storm.[121] Scaffolding attached to buildings collapsed in Lisbon.[122] One person was killed by a falling tree in Amieiro.[123] At least 70 trees fell and 73 structures were damaged in Viseu municipality.[93] Strong waves from Leslie deposited sand at the entrance to the Albufeira Lagoon as the storm moved ashore. Following the storm, water current velocities were greatly diminished for multiple weeks, causing the lagoon's entrance to close entirely by 9 November.[124]

Spain[edit]

Leslie brought torrential rainfall and flooding to the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Catalonia, Castilla-La Mancha, the Balearic Islands, and Valencia.[125] The storm caused at least 17 injuries across Spain. Heavy rainfall caused the Sió river to overflow in Catalonia.[126] At least 45 landslides occurred in the region. Around 247 firefighters responded to over 1,000 emergency calls in Catalonia.[127] In Castilla y León, 100 km/h (62 mph) winds downed trees and branches on roads in dozens of locations.[128] The R1, R2, and R11 lines of the Rodalies de Catalunya and five roads, including the C-17 highway in Barcelona, were closed as a result of fallen trees.[129][130] Girona and Barcelona experienced 14,000 power outages and 12 roads were impassable due to floodwaters; the latter forced the suspension of school transportation services for six municipalities. A gas station roof was blown off in the Malgrat del Mar neighborhood in Barcelona. Six people had to be evacuated from surrounding properties when a building collapsed in Tortosa.[126] Over 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain fell in Montseny, and 209.3 mm (8.24 in) of rain fell in Viladrau.[131] Strong winds caused a wall to collapse in Santo Ángel, forcing the closure of a road. The Albujón highway was closed in Cartagena, due to the storm. A fair was canceled in Avenida de Los Toreros after a tree fell and roofs of two stalls were ripped off. The Toledo Cathedral sustained damage to its cornice, with a 20 kg (44 lb) piece falling off.[65][132] A tunnel flooded in Beniaján, trapping a vehicle.[133]

Several skates turned upside down in El Prat de Llobregat, and in Palomares, the masts of two skates were snapped and another was bent. Detritus plant matter and other dregs were swept onto the Sant Salvador beach by the storm, covering most of it.[134] An Algerian Kilo-class submarine and its accompanying tugboat, Al Moussif, anchored in the Spanish-controlled Ares Estuary during the storm.[135]

An electrical cable snapped in Zamora, sparking a ditch fire and leaving 390 residences without power.[132][136] A crane toppled over, striking a building in Soria.[132]

France[edit]

Leslie and another system combined to cause severe flooding in the Aude, which prompted the issuance of a red alert for the department; the floods were considered to have been the worst since 1891.[137] A 12-hour rainfall total of 295 mm (11.6 in) was reported in the town of Trèbes. Around 1,000 people were evacuated in the Pezens Municipality after a dam overflowed.[138][139] In the village of Veillardonnel, houses and streets were flooded and vehicles were swept away by floodwaters.[139] In Veillardonnel and Conques-sue-Orbiel, floodwaters reached the height of first-floor windows.[140] The Aude River rose over 7 m (23 ft) to reach 7.6 m (25 ft) in Trèbes. In Puichéric, the Aude River reached a level never before seen, besting the previous record which was set in October 1871. Floodwaters up to 1 m (3.3 ft) deep flooded homes in Villegailhenc. A bridge also collapsed in the town. At least 210 mm (8.3 in) of rain fell in Hérault. Around 6,000 people lost power in the Aude and another 2,000 in Hérault.[138][141] Police asked citizens in the Aude to remain in their houses and stay off flooded roadways.[127]

The Leclerc promenade in Sète was closed due to 7.6 m (25 ft)-high surf and 111 km/h (69 mph) wind gusts.[142] A total of 15 people were killed throughout the Aude as a result of the floods: six in Trèbes, three in Villegailhenc, two in Villalier, one in Veillardonnel, one in Carcassonne, and one in Saint-Couat-d'Aude. At least 75 additional people were injured in the department.[143][144] Flooding interrupted railway traffic along the Béziers-Narbonne section and other routes in Carcassonne.[138][145] Several roads in Carcassonne were blocked by felled trees, and cars were either swept away by floodwaters or destroyed.[146] Schools and universities throughout the city were closed from 15–16 October.[138] In the villages surrounding Carcassonne, flash flooding overturned vehicles, damaged roadways, and caused homes to collapse.[140] Multiple waterspouts occurred near the region bordering Spain.[147] At least 700 municipalities experienced flood damage, with an estimated total of €220 million (US$254 million).[148]

Elsewhere[edit]

The Alta, a freighter ship, experienced an unrepairable mechanical issue. The United States Coast Guard and the crew considered towing the ship, but ultimately abandoned it due to the nearby Hurricane Leslie. The ship ran ashore in Ireland on 16 February 2020.[149]

Météo-France issued a yellow alert for the overseas territory of Martinique on 3 October due to high surf generated by Leslie. The highest surf experienced in Martinique was 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in the Dominica Channel.[150]

From late September through early October, Leslie brought high surf to the East Coast of the United States, inducing the highest swell observed in some locations for years. Leslie also generated the single-longest period of tropical swells observed in the Outer Banks in the last 20 years, producing surf at chest height or higher. The highest surf was observed on 26–28 September, when Leslie was a powerful extratropical cyclone with hurricane-force winds.[151] Leslie and a low-pressure system inhibited a trough from tracking eastward from 29–30 September, causing fog to persist for 32 hours in Ferryland, Newfoundland.[152]

Aftermath[edit]

Portugal[edit]

A marketplace was closed in Figueira da Foz due to roof damage, causing losses of €700 thousand (US$853 thousand) to local fishermen.[153] Tree removal work began immediately after the storm;[154] around 150 trucks were mobilized to remove the fallen trees.[155] However, the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests estimated that the removal work would take at least 6 months.[154][156] Around 80 percent of the trees planted in pine forests along the coast of Leiria, in areas heavily-affected by wildfires and Leslie, died. In order to aid the recovery of the forest, plantings would continue for multiple years. Roads were also to be improved as a part of the project, which had a financial backing of €18 million (US$21.9 million).[157] Around €220,000 (US$268,000) were donated to fund the removal and sawing of felled trees in the Bussaco National Forest. Additional funds were donated to finance the planting of over 35,000 additional trees.[109] Near the Palace Hotel, 100 trees were planted in an area damaged by Leslie in order to honor the life of Nelson Mandela.[158] Despite being considered a public interest, the 300-year-old ash tree was cut down on 14 November 2019.[121]

Months after Leslie, students protested about the condition of the College of Arts building at the University of Coimbra, which was one of those damaged during the storm.[159] In Chernache, the Aerodrome Bissaya Barreto was closed from 30 May–7 June 2019, due to additional problems after Leslie had removed its windsock.[160] Around 10,000 personnel were mobilized to deal with fallen trees and landslides in Mira.[103] Municipal authorities worked to clear fallen trees and repair broken walls and signage.[102] Authorities activated the emergency municipal plan in Montemor-o-Velho, Figueira da Foz, Condeixa-a-Nova, Soure, Coimbra, and Mira to aid with cleanup and relief efforts.[161][162] The district emergency plan was activated for Coimbra district.[62] Fifty generators were provided by Pombal municipal officials to restore power to residences and small businesses.[113] The Portuguese government anticipated an expenditure of €36 million (US$43.8 million) would be required to aid the forest industry.[163] Fisheries near Figueira da Foz operated at below normal capacity through 2020, due to a reduction in sardine supply that occurred after Leslie moved through the area.[164] Although the Portuguese government agreed to cover 70 percent of the costs of reconstruction for the Equestrian Center of Montemor-o-Velho, it had not provided the funds two years post-storm.[105]

Initially, on 27 November 2018, the Portuguese government rejected a proposal to provide relief funds for victims of the storm.[165] The government provided €1.4 million (US$1.7 million) out of a maximum of €8.3 million (US$10.1 million) in aid to 24 municipalities in 2019.[166] They provided another €3.6 million (US$4.3 million) to those municipalities in 2020.[88][167][168] The legislature allocated €20 million (US$24.3 million) in aid to the agricultural sector.[84][169][170] The Portuguese government opened up €15 million (US$17.7 million) in relief funds for farmers who sustained damage to buildings, equipment, livestock, and permanent crops.[171] At least seven companies received financial aid totalling €391,000 (US$478,000).[172] Social organizations that experienced large financial woes had not received relief funding from the Portuguese government two years after the storm.[173] The legislative body was criticised for being slow in authorising the release of funds to these organizations.[174] The Coimbra City Council approved a measure on 30 June to repair the Celas Integrated Sports Center and a building at the Campo Municipal da Arregaça, both of which were severely damaged by Leslie.[175] Despite repairs having taken place at the sports center, it remained closed nearly a year after Leslie passed through the region.[176]

In 2021, the Rural Development Program provided €98,000 (US$120,000) in aid to help repair damage caused in the Choupal National Forest. At least 5,000 new trees were to be planted and 700 damaged ones either cut down or trimmed.[177] To aid recovery efforts, €5 million (US$6.1 million) in funds were approved for a recovery plan for the Leiria National Forest in the Marinha Grande Municipality. The plan included the planting of at least 230 trees to restore the forest after Leslie and a 2017 fire destroyed most of it.[178] The Miranda do Corvo city council approved €74,850 (US$91,400) in funds to rebuild the Senhor da Serra Pavillion, which was entirely destroyed by the storm.[179] The council also approved €34,085 (US$41,600) in aid to repair the headquarters for the Vale do Açor Recreational, Cultural and Sports Association.[180]

France[edit]

After the storm, victims in the Aude proceeded to shelters or lodged with their neighbors, and schools were closed.[181] Around 700 firefighters, 160 police officers, and rescue agencies took part in cleanup and rescue operations in the department.[138][182][183] Seven helicopters and one plane were mobilized for search and rescue missions in the Aude.[138] Authorities responded to at least 250 emergencies.[184] The French Insurance Federation recorded 35,000 claims of damage in regards to the floods caused by Leslie, with 27,000 of those occurring in the Aude. Collectively, €17 million (US$20 million) in advances were paid to claimants.[185]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ All damage amounts are listed in their 2018 values unless otherwise indicated.

References[edit]

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  97. ^ "Mau tempo: Figueira da Foz quer reabrir Parque Municipal de Campismo em tempo recorde" [Bad weather: Figueira da Foz wants to reopen the Municipal Camping Park in record time]. Sapo 24 (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 18 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  98. ^ "Mata do Bussaco só reabre em Dezembro e Choupal daqui a três semanas" [Mata do Bussaco only reopens in December and Choupal in three weeks]. Público (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 16 October 2018. Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  99. ^ a b "Cerca de 100.000 casas continuam sem energia em Portugal após furacão" [About 100,000 homes remain without power in Portugal after the hurricane]. Veja (in Portuguese). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  100. ^ "Unas 100.000 casas continúan sin energía en Portugal tras el paso de Huracán Leslie" [Some 100,000 houses remain without power in Portugal after Hurricane Leslie]. Listin Diario (in Spanish). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  101. ^ "Mau tempo: Autarca de Soure estima um milhão de euros de prejuízo" [Bad weather: Autarch de Soure estimates a million euros loss]. Sábado (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  102. ^ a b c d "Distrito de Coimbra concentrou os principais danos com a passagem do furacão no passado sábado" [District of Coimbra concentrated the main damages with the passage of the hurricane last Saturday.]. Contacto (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 18 October 2018. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  103. ^ a b "Um ano depois da tempestade Leslie, Mira ainda não recebeu o fundo criado pelo Governo" [A year after Leslie Storm, Mira still hasn't received the government-created fund]. Público (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  104. ^ "Pombal e Mira continuam sem electricidade e há mais de uma dezena de escolas encerradas" [Pombal and Mira are still without electricity and more than a dozen schools are closed]. Público (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  105. ^ a b "Leslie: Centro Equestre de Montemor-o-Velho fez as obras mas espera pelos apoios da CCDRC" [Leslie: Montemor-o-Velho Equestrian Center did the works but is waiting for CCDRC support]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 30 September 2020. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  106. ^ "Coimbra em Alerta Vermelho. Proteção Civil diz que Leslie está a ir embora" [Coimbra on Red Alert. Civil Protection says Leslie is leaving]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  107. ^ "Feridos ligeiros e dezenas de desalojados no distrito de Coimbra" [Slight injuries and dozens of homeless people in the district of Coimbra]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  108. ^ "Leslie. Miranda do Corvo com muitos estragos nas coberturas das coletividades" [Leslie. Miranda do Corvo with a lot of damage to the roofs of the communities]. Sapo 24 (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  109. ^ a b "Leslie: Bussaco a caminho da recuperação total com limpeza e plantação de árvores autóctones" [Leslie: Bussaco on its way to full recovery with indigenous tree clearing and planting]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  110. ^ "Furacão Leslie: 'Parecia o fim do mundo' na Praia da Vieira" [Hurricane Leslie: 'It felt like the end of the world' at Praia da Vieira]. Observador (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  111. ^ Cruz, Elisabete (18 October 2018). "Depois da Leslie limpam-se as lágrimas e a destruição" [After Leslie, tears and destruction are wiped away]. Jornal de Leiria (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 30 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  112. ^ "Furacão Leslie: Um Ano Após 61 Desalojados E 120 Milhões De Prejuízos (Vídeo)" [Hurricane Leslie: One Year After 61 Homeless and 120 Million Damages (Video)]. Rádio Regional (in Portuguese). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  113. ^ a b "Pombal tem quatro freguesias sem comunicações e sem eletricidade" [Pombal has four parishes with no communications and no electricity]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  114. ^ "El huracán Leslie obliga a suspender la final europea de hockey patines femenino" [Hurricane Leslie forces the suspension of the European women's roller hockey final]. El Español (in Spanish). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  115. ^ "The Assignation of the Title of Female European Championship Is Suspended". World Skate Europe Rink Hockey. 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  116. ^ "La final de hockey suspendida por un huracán se jugará en el mismo pabellón" [The hockey final suspended by a hurricane will be played in the same pavilion]. El Español (in Spanish). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  117. ^ "Mealhada com orçamento de 21 milhões para 2020" [Mealhada with a budget of 21 million for 2020]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 17 December 2019. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  118. ^ Frias, Rui (16 October 2018). "Uma 'volta de mar' encheu de tragédia o Mestre Silva" [A 'turn of the sea' filled Mestre Silva with tragedy]. Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  119. ^ Branco, Carolina; Cipriano, Rita (13 October 2018). "Furacão Leslie. A maior tempestade desde 1842" [Hurricane Leslie. The biggest storm since 1842] (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  120. ^ "Convento em Montemor-o-Novo com queda parcial de abóbada" [Convent in Montemor-o-Novo with partial fall of the vault]. Público (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  121. ^ a b Soldado, Camilo (14 November 2019). "Câmara da Figueira da Foz abateu freixo centenário após dia de protestos" [Figueira da Foz Chamber felled centenary ash after day of protests]. Público (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  122. ^ González, Danier Ernesto (16 October 2018). "El impacto de Leslie y una foto 'eléctrica'" [Leslie's shock and an 'electric' photo]. Cuba Debate (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  123. ^ "Furacão Leslie atinge Portugal com ventos de 180 km/h" [Hurricane Leslie hits Portugal with winds of 180 km/h]. R7 Notícias (in Portuguese). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  124. ^ Bertin, Xavier; Mendes, Diogo; Martins, Kévin; Fortunato, André; Lavaud, Laura (11 June 2019). "The Closure of a Shallow Tidal Inlet Promoted by Infragravity Waves". Geophysical Research Letters. AGU. 46 (12): 6804–6810. Bibcode:2019GeoRL..46.6804B. doi:10.1029/2019GL083527. S2CID 197563846. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  125. ^ R., Felipe (26 January 2019). Boletín Oficial Del Estado: número 23 [Official State Newsletter: number 23] (PDF) (Report) (in Spanish). Government of Spain. p. 7124. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  126. ^ a b Casanova, Grego (15 October 2018). "La tormenta Leslie deja cinco heridos graves en Cataluña" [Storm Leslie leaves five seriously injured in Catalonia]. El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 December 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  127. ^ a b Jorro, Ignasi (15 October 2018). "Trece muertos tras el paso de la tormenta 'Leslie' por el sur de Francia" [Thirteen dead after storm 'Leslie' passed through southern France]. Global Chrónica Vida (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  128. ^ "La tormenta tropical Leslie atraviesa Portugal y comienza a golpear a España" [Tropical storm Leslie passes through Portugal and begins to hit Spain]. El 19 Digital (in Spanish). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  129. ^ "Más de 6.000 hogares permanecen sin luz en Cataluña por las fuertes lluvias de las últimas horas" [More than 6,000 homes remain without electricity in Catalonia due to the heavy rains of the last hours]. rtve (in Spanish). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  130. ^ Jorro, Ignasi (15 October 2018). "El temporal 'Leslie' deja carreteras cortadas y crecidas de ríos en Cataluña" [The storm 'Leslie' leaves roads cut and river floods in Catalonia]. Global Chrónica Vida (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  131. ^ "Ríos desbordados, carreteras cortadas, miles de casas sin luz, 17 heridos... Cataluña sufre los coletazos de 'Leslie'" [Overflowing rivers, blocked roads, thousands of houses without electricity, 17 injured ... Catalonia suffers the blows of 'Leslie']. 20 Minutos (in Spanish). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  132. ^ a b c "La tormenta tropical Leslie atraviesa España tras causar destrozos y dejar miles de casas sin luz en Portugal" [Tropical storm Leslie passes through Spain after causing damage and leaving thousands of houses without electricity in Portugal]. El País (in Spanish). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  133. ^ "La cola de 'Leslie' deja muros y árboles caídos, vías cortadas y mucha agua en la Región" [The tail of 'Leslie' leaves walls and fallen trees, roads cut and a lot of water in the Region]. La Verdad (in Spanish). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  134. ^ "Los temporales derivados del 'Leslie' se 'ceban' en los clubes de El Prat y Palomares" [The storms derived from the 'Leslie' are 'primed' in the clubs of El Prat and Palomares]. CMD Sports (in Spanish). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  135. ^ "Un submarino clase Kilo se refugia en la ría de Ares" [A Kilo-class submarine takes refuge in the Ares estuary] (PDF). Revista General De Marina (in Spanish). Spanish Navy. December 2018. p. 1023. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  136. ^ "Leslie llega a España debilitada, pero pone en alerta a medio país por fuertes vientos y lluvias" [Leslie arrives in Spain weakened, but puts half the country on alert due to strong winds and rains]. rtve (in Spanish). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  137. ^ Le Guen, Viviane (15 October 2018). "Inondations dans l'Aude : des 'épisodes méditerranéens' difficiles à prévoir selon Météo France" [Floods in the Aude: 'Mediterranean episodes' difficult to predict according to Météo France]. France Bleu (in French). Archived from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  138. ^ a b c d e f Ayuso, Silvia (16 October 2018). "Al menos una decena de muertos por fuertes inundaciones en el sur de Francia" [At least a dozen dead from heavy flooding in southern France]. El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  139. ^ a b Charrier, Pascal; Sergent, Denis (15 October 2018). "L'Aude frappée de plein fouet par des inondations meurtrières" [Aude hit hard by deadly floods]. La Croix (in French). Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  140. ^ a b "13 people killed as flash flooding hits Aude, southwest France". Sky News. 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  141. ^ "Episode pluvio-orageux exceptionnel dans l'Aude le 15 octobre" [Exceptional rain and storm event in the Aude on October 15]. Keraunos (in French). Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  142. ^ "Sète : des rafales de vent à 111 km/h" [Sète: wind gusts to 111 km / h]. Midi Libre (in French). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  143. ^ "Inondations dans l'Aude : deux semaines après le drame, le bilan s'alourdit à 15 morts" [Floods in Aude: two weeks after the tragedy, the toll rises to 15 dead]. actuToulouse (in French). 30 October 2018. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  144. ^ "France: le bilan des inondations dans l'Aude monte à 14 morts" [France: the toll of floods in Aude rises to 14 dead]. Le Soir (in French). 17 October 2018. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  145. ^ Ayuso, Silvia (15 October 2018). "Tempestade Leslie: pelo menos 13 mortos em fortes inundações no sul da França" [Leslie Storm: at least 13 killed in heavy floods in southern France]. El País (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  146. ^ "Tempestade causa inundações e deixa 12 mortos no sul da França" [Storm causes floods and leaves 12 dead in southern France]. Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  147. ^ "El huracán Leslie deja 13 muertos en Carcasona por las inundaciones" [Hurricane Leslie kills 13 in Carcassonne due to flooding]. Vozpópuli (in Spanish). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  148. ^ Crepet, Regis (15 October 2018). "14-15 octobre 2018 : inondations catastrophiques dans l'Aude" [October 14–15, 2018: catastrophic floods in the Aude]. La Chaîne Météo (in French). Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  149. ^ Lorrain, Charles (4 March 2020). "Un bateau fantôme s'échoue sur une côte en Irlande" [Ghost ship runs aground on Irish coast]. Sur La Plage (in French). Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  150. ^ "La Martinique en Jaune pour " mer dangereuse à la côte "" [Martinique in Yellow for 'dangerous sea on the coast']. France-Antilles (in French). 4 October 2018. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  151. ^ Pruett, Matt (10 October 2018). "Hurricane Leslie Wasn't Perfect..." Surfline. Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  152. ^ Dorman, Clive; Hoch, Sebastian; Gultepe, Ismail; Wang, Qing; Yamaguchi, Ryan; Fernando, H. J. S.; Krishnamurthy, Raghavendra (22 July 2021). "Large-Scale Synoptic Systems and Fog During the C-FOG Field Experiment". Boundary-Layer Meteorology. Springer. 181 (2–3): 171–202. Bibcode:2021BoLMe.181..171D. doi:10.1007/s10546-021-00641-1. S2CID 236163480. Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  153. ^ "Tempestade Leslie. Comerciantes de peixe do mercado da Figueira da Foz abastecem-se na Nazaré" [Leslie Storm. Fish traders from the Figueira da Foz market stock up in Nazaré]. Sapo 24 (in Portuguese). 18 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  154. ^ a b "Figueira da Foz quer estradas da serra da Boa Viagem limpas de imediato" [Figueira da Foz wants roads in the Serra da Boa Viagem to be cleaned immediately]. País AO Minuto (in Portuguese). 30 October 2018. Archived from the original on 30 October 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  155. ^ "Leslie destruiu 3.500 árvores na serra da Boa Viagem" [Leslie destroyed 3,500 trees in the Boa Viagem mountains]. País ao Minuto (in Portuguese). 11 December 2018. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  156. ^ "COIMBRA Destruição na serra da Boa Viagem deve servir como alerta para alterações climáticas" [COIMBRA Destruction in the Boa Viagem mountains should serve as a warning for climate change]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 5 November 2018. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  157. ^ "Cerca de 80% das árvores plantadas nos pinhais do litoral morreram" [About 80% of the trees planted in coastal pine forests died]. Público (in Portuguese). 8 March 2019. Archived from the original on 30 May 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  158. ^ "Bosque de homenagem a Nelson Mandela será plantado na Mata do Bussaco" [Forest in honor of Nelson Mandela will be planted in Mata do Bussaco]. Contacto (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 19 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  159. ^ Soldado, Camilo (22 January 2019). "Universidade de Coimbra prepara requalificação do Colégio das Artes" [University of Coimbra prepares requalification of College of Arts]. Público (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  160. ^ Oliveira, João (3 June 2019). "Aeródromo De Coimbra Encerrado Por Falta De Condições De Segurança, Mas Câmara Só Confirma Obras" [Coimbra Aerodrome Closed Due to Lack of Safety Conditions, But City Council Only Confirms Work]. TVI 24 (in Portuguese). TVI. Archived from the original on 10 June 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  161. ^ "Mau Tempo: Plano Distrital de Emergência de Coimbra ativado" [Bad Weather: Coimbra's District Emergency Plan activated]. Sapo 24 (in Portuguese). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  162. ^ "Mau tempo: Mira ativa plano municipal de emergência" [Bad weather: Mira activates municipal emergency plan]. Sapo 24 (in Portuguese). 14 October 2018. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  163. ^ "Governo prevê investimento de 36 milhões em projetos florestais" [Government plans to invest 36 million in forestry projects]. Sábado (in Portuguese). 14 January 2019. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  164. ^ "Ministro do Mar navegou na Figueira da Foz para conhecer questões da pesca local" [Minister of the Sea sailed in Figueira da Foz to learn about local fishing issues]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  165. ^ "Parlamento português chumba proposta para apoios às vítimas da tempestade Leslie" [Portuguese parliament fails proposal to support storm victims Leslie]. Contacto (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 27 November 2018. Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  166. ^ "Tempestade Leslie: Aprovados 1,4 milhões de apoios para 24 municípios" [Leslie Storm: 1.4 million grants approved for 24 municipalities]. PaísAOMinuto (in Portuguese). 17 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  167. ^ "Governo apoia com 3,6 milhões de euros municípios afetados pela tempestade Leslie" [Government supports municipalities affected by storm Leslie with 3.6 million euros]. RTP Notícias (in Portuguese). 26 October 2020. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  168. ^ "Governo apoia com 3,6 milhões municípios afetados pela tempestade Leslie" [Government supports with 3.6 million municipalities affected by storm Leslie]. Diário As Beiras (in Portuguese). 27 October 2020. Archived from the original on 12 February 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  169. ^ "Furacão Leslie: 61 desalojados e 120 milhões de prejuízos" [Hurricane Leslie: 61 displaced and 120 million damage]. Observador (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 19 October 2018. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  170. ^ "Ministro prevê pelo menos 10 milhões de euros de ajuda aos agricultores" [Minister foresees at least 10 million euros in aid to farmers]. PTJornal (in Portuguese). 19 October 2018. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  171. ^ "Tempestade Leslie: Governo abre candidaturas a apoios de 15 milhões de euros" [Leslie Storm: Government opens applications for 15 million euros support] (in Portuguese). Portuguese Government. 3 November 2018. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  172. ^ "Tempestade Leslie atingiu a região há dois anos" [Leslie storm hit the region two years ago]. Região de Leiria (in Portuguese). 13 October 2020. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  173. ^ "Tempestade Leslie provocou há dois anos prejuízos de 120 milhões de euros" [Leslie storm caused 120 million euros in damages two years ago]. Correio da Manhã (in Portuguese). 11 October 2020. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  174. ^ "Tempestade Leslie. PSD acusa Governo de 'inoperância' e atraso nos apoios" [Leslie Storm. PSD accuses Government of 'inoperative' and delay in support]. Notícias AO Minuto (in Portuguese). Lusa News Agency. 25 August 2020. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  175. ^ "Câmara abre concurso para reabilitação de Piscina de Celas, construção de Centro Desportivo e requalificação do Campo da Arregaça" [Chamber opens tender for rehabilitation of the pool in Celas, construction of Sports Center and requalification of Campo da Arregaça]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 9 October 2020. Archived from the original on 30 May 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  176. ^ "Não é possível 'achanatar' Piscina de Celas" [It is not possible to 'flatten' the pool in Celas]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  177. ^ Soldado, Camilo (10 February 2021). "Mais de dois anos depois de ser varrido pelo Leslie, Choupal vai ser reabilitado" [More than two years after being swept away by Leslie, Choupal will be rehabilitated]. Público (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  178. ^ "Ferro Rodrigues quer 'esperança distribuída por todos os portugueses;" [Ferro Rodrigues wants 'hope distributed to all the Portuguese]. País AO Minuto (in Portuguese). 11 May 2021. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  179. ^ "Miranda do Corvo apoia Reabilitação do Pavilhão do Senhor Da Serra" [Miranda do Corvo supports the Rehabilitation of the Senhor Da Serra Pavilion]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 1 April 2021. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  180. ^ "Beneficiação da Sede da Associação de Vale Do Açor tem apoio da Câmara de Miranda do Corvo" [Improvement works at the Vale Do Açor Association's headquarters are financed by the City Council of Miranda do Corvo]. Notícias de Coimbra (in Portuguese). 8 April 2021. Archived from the original on 8 April 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  181. ^ "Inondations dans l'Aude : 12 morts, un disparu et 8 blessés, selon le dernier bilan" [Floods in the Aude: 12 dead, one missing and 8 injured, according to the latest report]. La Depeche (in French). 16 October 2018. Archived from the original on 29 November 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  182. ^ "France: le bilan des inondations dans l'Aude monte à 14 morts" [France: the toll of floods in Aude rises to 14 dead]. Le Soir (in French). 17 October 2018. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  183. ^ Meza, Andres (15 October 2018). "Al menos 12 muertos por inundaciones en Francia" [At least 12 dead from floods in France]. France 24 (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  184. ^ "Asciende a 13 el saldo de muertos por tormenta Leslie en sur Francia (+ Video)" [The death toll from storm Leslie in southern France rises to 13 (+ Video)]. Cuba Debate (in Spanish). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  185. ^ "Inondations dans l'Aude : le coût final est estimé à 220 millions d'euros" [Floods in the Aude: the final cost is estimated at 220 million euros]. La Tribune de l'Assurance (in French). 9 November 2018. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Weather Service.

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